MFC Engineering Properties

High-field (|E| > 1kV/mm), biased-voltage-operation piezoelectric constants:
d33 P1 type, in rod direction 4.6E+02 pC/N 4.6E+02 pm/V
d31 P2 type, in electrode direction -2.1E+02 pC/N -2.1E+02 pm/V
Low-field (|E| < 1kV/mm > 300V), unbiased-operation piezoelectric constants:
d33 P1 type, in rod direction 4.0E+02 pC/N 4.0E+02 pm/V
d31 P2 type, in electrode direction -1.7E+02 pC/N -1.7E+02 pm/V
Average free-strain per volt
(low-field - high-field) for d33 MFC(P1)
in rod direction
~ 0.75 - 0.9 ppm/V ~ 0.75 - 0.9 ppm/V
Average free-strain per volt
(low-field - high-field) for d31 MFC (P2)
in rod direction
~1.1 - 1.3 ppm/V ~1.1 - 1.3 ppm/V
Free-strain hysteresis in rod direction ~ 0.2 ~ 0.2
DC poling voltage, Vpol for d33 MFC (P1) +1500V +1500V
DC poling voltage, Vpol for d31 MFC (P2) +360V +360V
Poled capacitance @ 1kHz, room temp, Cpol for d33 MFC (P1) ~ 0.30 nF/cm² ~ 1.94 nF/in²
Poled capacitance @ 1kHz, room temp, Cpol for d31 MFC (P2) ~ 7.8 nF/cm² ~ 50 nF/ in²
Orthotropic Linear Elastic Properties (constant electric field):
Tensile modulus, E1 in rod direction 30.336 GPa 4.4E+06 psi
Tensile modulus, E1 in electrode direction 15.857 GPa 2.3E+06 psi
Poisson’s ratio, v12 0.31 0.31
Poisson’s ratio, v21 0.16 0.16
Shear modulus, G12 rules of mixture estimate 5.515 GPa 8.0E+05 psi
Operational Parameters:
Maximum operational positive voltage, Vmax for d33 MFC (P1) +1500V +1500V
Maximum operational positive voltage, Vmax for d31 MFC (P2) +360V +360V
Maximum operational negative voltage, Vmin for d33 MFC (P1) -500V -500V
Maximum operational negative voltage, Vmin for d31 MFC (P2) -60V -60V
Linear-elastic tensile strain limit 1 1000 ppm 1000 ppm
Maximum operational tensile strain 1 < 4500 ppm < 4500 ppm
Recommended tensile strain for
Energy Harvesting
< 600 ppm < 600 ppm
Peak work-energy density ~48800 Nm/m³ ~7 in-lb/in³
Temperature and Lifetime Parameters:
Minimum operating temperature, all Versions -35°C -31°F
Maximum operating temperature - Standard Version < 85°C < 176°F
Maximum operating temperature - HT Version < 130°C < 266°F
Operational lifetime (@ 1kVp-p) > 10E+09 cycles > 10E+09 cycles
Operational lifetime (@ 2kVp-p, 500VDC) > 10E+07 cycles > 10E+07 cycles
Operational Bandwidth:
Operational bandwidth as actuator,
high electric field
0Hz up to 10 kHz 0Hz up to 10 kHz
Operational bandwidth as actuator,
low electric field levels
(< 33% of max operating voltage)
0Hz up to 700kHz 0Hz up to 700kHz
Operational bandwidth as sensor 0Hz up to 1 MHz 0Hz up to 1 MHz
Additional mechanical parameters:
Thickness of all MFC types 300µm, +-10% 12 mil +-10%
Volume Density, active area 5.44 g/cm³ 5.44 g/cm³
Area Density, active area 0.16 g/cm² 0.16 g/cm²

1 For further details please download the following publication Nonlinear Tensile and Shear Behavior of Macro Fiber Composite Actuators