1-3 Regular Fiber Composites

Smart Material manufactures 1-3 composites using piezo ceramic fibers as active rods. PZT fiber composites are a cost effective alternative compared with the Dice & Fill method.
1-3 fiber piezo composites are prepared by epoxy infiltration of fiber bundles and dicing of the cube-shaped blocks perpendicular to the direction of the fibers. This patented method is also called Arrange & Fill.

Regular pixel distribution is achieved by arranging ceramic fibers with 800µm diameter with a constant pitch. This yields fill factors of approx. 15% to a maximum of 48%.

The 1-3 fiber regular composite material was especially designed for SONAR and other underwater ultrasound applications. A modified vacuum deposition methods allows for a low impedance copper-flash tin layer with a typical thickness of 2.5µm for high durability and improved solderability.

Typical Ultrasound Applications for 1-3 Regular Fiber Composites

  • SONAR, array transducer
  • SONAR, single element transducer
  • General Underwater Ultrasound Applications
  • Air Ultrasound Transducers

Due to the Arrange & Fill production method the raw 1-3 fiber composite material are typical blocks of up to 10cm length and the lateral dimensions of the targeted element. It also allows to machine 1-3 composites into various shapes and forms, in addition to slicing elements with the desired resonance frequency of the raw fiber block.

This includes precise concave or convex contours for superior broadband ultrasound receiver applications. The Arrange & Fill production method is easily scaleable for volume quantities which also allows for short lead time, a major advantage over the commonly used Dice & Fill methods, especially for low frequency applications.

Smart Material is offering various standard Epoxy and Polyurethane systems as the interstitial material for its random fiber composites, often called filler. The different, available filler materials allow for operational temperatures between 95°C and 135°C.

1-3 Regular Fiber Composite product specifications and selections

Resonance Frequencies40kHZ up to 1MHz
Frequency Pixel Size Fill Factor Dimensions mm² Availability
40kHz -1MHz 800µm 15% max. 100 x 100 Request
40kHz -1MHz 800µm 25% max. 100 x 100 4-6 weeks
40kHz -1MHz 800µm 48% max. 100 x 100 4-6 weeks
Frequency Tolerances:
± 10% typical
± 5% on request
Fill Factors15% up to 48%
Fill Factor Frequency Availability
15% 40kHz to 1MHz Request
25% 40kHz to 1MHz 4-6 weeks
48% 40kHz to 1MHz 4-6 weeks
Other 40kHz to 1MHz Request
PZT MaterialsPZT Navy Type II, VI
PZT Material Di-electric Constant Frequency Availability
PZT Navy Type II, 5A 1850 40kHz to 10MHz 4-6 weeks
PZT Navy Type VI, 5H 3850 40kHz to 10 MHz 4-6 weeks
Acoustic Impedance5 MRayl to 16 MRayl
Typical Fill Factors Acoustic Impedance MRayl
15% 5.1 MRayl
25% 8.5 MRayl
48% 16 MRayl
Available ElectrodesCuSn (Copper with Tin flash layer)
DimensionsMax. 100mm by 100mm,
various round diameters
Maximum Dimensions Frequency Availability
100mm by 100mm 40kHz to 1MHz 4-6 weeks
Mechanical Tolerances:
< 6mm ± 0.1mm
< 30mm ± 0.2mm
> 30mm ± 0.3mm
Available Diameters mm Available Diameters inch Available Diameters mm Available Diameters inch
3.18 mm 0.125 '' 12.70 mm 0.500 ''
5.12 mm 0.202 '' 14.20 mm 0.559 ''
5.18 mm 0.204 '' 15.90 mm 0.626 ''
5.68 mm 0.224 '' 17.50 mm 0.689 ''
6.00 mm 0.236 '' 18.00 mm 0.709 ''
6.50 mm 0.256 '' 19.05 mm 0.750 ''
8.20 mm 0.323 '' 20.00 mm 0.787 ''
9.00 mm 0.354 '' 24.00 mm 0.945 ''
9.50 mm 0.374 '' 25.40 mm 1 ''
10.00 mm 0.394 '' 30.00 mm 1.181 ''
10.20 mm 0.402 '' 35.00 mm 1.378 ''
12.00 mm 0.472 '' 37.7 1.48 ''
Coupling Coefficient kt0.61 to 0.68
Operational TemperaturesTypical 95°C, 130°C on request
Interstitial MaterialsVarious Epoxy systems